From Shame to Sin

The Christian Transformation of Sexual Morality in Late Antiquity

Kyle Harper, 2013


When Rome was at its height, an emperor’s male beloved, victim of an untimely death, would be worshipped around the empire as a god. In this same society, the routine sexual exploitation of poor and enslaved women was abetted by public institutions. Four centuries later, a Roman emperor commanded the mutilation of men caught in same-sex affairs, even as he affirmed the moral dignity of women without any civic claim to honor. The gradual transformation of the Roman world from polytheistic to Christian marks one of the most sweeping ideological changes of premodern history. At the center of it all was sex. Exploring sources in literature, philosophy, and art, Kyle Harper examines the rise of Christianity as a turning point in the history of sexuality and helps us see how the roots of modern sexuality are grounded in an ancient religious revolution.

While Roman sexual culture was frankly and freely erotic, it was not completely unmoored from constraint. Offending against sexual morality was cause for shame, experienced through social condemnation. The rise of Christianity fundamentally changed the ethics of sexual behavior. In matters of morality, divine judgment transcended that of mere mortals, and shame — a social concept — gave way to the theological notion of sin. This transformed understanding led to Christianity’s explicit prohibitions of homosexuality, extramarital love, and prostitution. Most profound, however, was the emergence of the idea of free will in Christian dogma, which made all human action, including sexual behavior, accountable to the spiritual, not the physical, world.

(Text by the author)




Introduction: From City to Cosmos

  1. The Moralities of Sex in the Roman Empire
  2. The Will and the World in Early Christian Sexuality
  3. Church, Society, and Sex in the Age of Triumph
  4. Revolutionizing Romance in the Late Classical World

Conclusion: Sex and the Twilight of Antiquity





Learning Greek with Plato

A Beginner’s Course in Classical Greek


Frank Beetham, 2007


Adult learners of ancient Greek are often attracted to it by the prospect of being able to read in the original a particular author or genre. Greek philosophical writing and Plato in particular is often the target. This book’s material has been tried and tested by the author over the years with adult classes, and can be used as a course textbook, or as a handbook for self-teaching. Each of 25 sections is clearly laid out – with tabulation of Greek word-forms and grammar. Each includes ample exercises and practice in reading Greek sentences. Readings in later sections consist of passages of continuous Greek from Plato’s Meno, a typical Platonic dramatic dialogue.

(Text by the author)


Table of Contents:



Introduction: Background to Plato’s Meno


Section 1

The Alphabet, Punctuation and Accents


Section 2

The Verb « I am »

Asking Questions

Nouns and Declensions




Section 3

Subjects and Verbs – Verb Endings

Personal Pronouns

Neuter Plural Subjects


Section 4

The Object

Accusative of Respect or Manner

Note on Greek Dialects


Section 5

Verbs – Middle and Passive Endings « This »,


Section 6

The Present Infinitive


The Genitive Case


Section 7


The Dative Case

« Who? » and « What? »

« Someone » and « Something »

The Vocative Case

Third and Mixed Declension Adjectivess


Section 8


Verbs – Overview of Tenses

The Imperfect Tense


Translating Plato’s Meno 70a1-70c3


Section 9

The Perfect Tense

The Perfect Tense Middle and Passive

Translating Plato’s Meno 70c3-71c4


Section 10

Demonstrative Pronouns

Present Participles

The Perfect Active Participle

Middle and Passive Participles

Translating Plato’s Meno 71c5-72a5


Section 11

« Every »/ « All »

The Aorist Tense

The Weak Aorist Indicative Active

The Weak Aorist Indicative Middle

Kinds of Condition

Translating Plato’s Meno 72a6-72d3


Section 12

Multiple Questions

The Future Active

The Future Middle

The Subjunctive Mood

Infinitive as Subject and Object

Future and General Conditions

Translating Plato’s Meno 72d4-73c5


Section 13

Adjectives with Masculine for Feminine

The Optative Mood

Future Unlikely Conditions

Translating Plato’s Meno 73c6-74a6


Section 14

The Strong Aorist Active Tense

The Strong Aorist Middle Tense

Purpose Clauses

Translating Plato’s Meno 74a7-74e10


Section 15



Strong and Doubtful Denials

Translating Plato’s Meno 74e11-75d7


Section 16

Contraction (Verbs)

Translating Plato’s Meno 75d7-76c3


Section 17

Relative Pronouns: « Who », « What », « Which », « That »

Translating Plato’s Meno 76c4-77a2


Section 18

The Aorist Passive Tense

Translating Plato’s Meno 77a2-77e4


Section 19

The Genitive Absolute

The Future Passive Tense

Translating Plato’s Meno 77e5-78c3


Section 20

Temporal Clauses

The Pluperfect Tense

Translating Plato’s Meno 78c4-79a2


Section 21

Contracted Adjective Endings (Third Declension)

Reported Speech

Accusative and Infinitive used for Reported Statements

Participle Construction with « Know » or « See »

Relative Clauses, Direct and Indirect Questions

Translating Plato’s Meno 79a3-79c10


Section 22

(« Because »)

(« Although »)


Multiple Negatives

Translating Plato’s Meno 79d1-79e6


Section 23

Irregular Adjectives

Comparatives and Superlatives

Translating Plato’s Meno 79e7-80b7


Section 24

Translating Plato’s Meno 80b8-81a10


Section 25

Impersonal Verbs

Accusative Absolute

Verbal Adjectives

Reflexive Pronouns

Translating Plato’s Meno 81a10-81e6



Cases and Prepositions

Summary of Voice, Mood, Tense and Aspect in the Greek Verb

Word Order



Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Pronouns

Reference List of Verb Endings and Irregular Verbs


Word List

Principal Tenses of Some of the More Difficult Verbs


Soutenance de thèse d’Adrian Mihai intitulée : Ὁ ἐν οὐρανῷ ᾍδης. La naissance du Purgatoire dans l’Antiquité.

Le mardi 2 juillet à 9 h 30, EPHE, Immeuble le France, salle 123.

L’objectif de sa thèse a été de montrer que l’Hadès ouranien, comme un des lieux de l’au-delà, durant la période hellénistique et romaine, était surtout un lieu purgatoire, et n’a aucun rapport avec le soi-disant « Enfer céleste » duquel les spécialistes nous parlent depuis presqu’un siècle.

Sa thèse, structurée en quatre parties, présente deux parties qui nous intéressent particulièrement : la troisième partie, consacrée à la doctrine du Purgatoire selon Cicéron et Virgile et chez leurs interprètes néoplatoniciens, ainsi que dans l’hermétisme et le gnosticisme ; et la quatrième partie, où il est abordé la doctrine du Purgatoire dans le Oracles chaldaïques et dans les écrits de Proclus, particulièrement dans son Commentaire sur la République de Platon.

Pour une lecture de sa position de thèse : Position_de_thèse_Mihai

Les impondérables de l’hellénisation. Littérature d’hiérogrammates 


Derchain P., 2000


Table des matières :


I. Les impondérables de l’hellénisation

Les règles du jeu

Un conseiller de la première heure

Le zèle d’un néophyte ?

Un provincial hellénisé à la Cour de Philadelphe

Épigramme pour la mort d’un enfant

Pour finir


II. Littérature d’hiérogrammates

Traduction des témoignages


Éthique de la traduction

L’inscription du conseiller

L’inscription d’Horembeb

Les inscriptions de Sesoucheri

La statue de Qous

La statue de Coptos

L’épigramme de Pétosiris

Annexe : la stèle d’Isemkhetés



III. Textes hiéroglyphiques

Vienne 20 (d’après CAA)

CGC 1230 (D’après Borchardt/Daressy)

BM 1668 (avec l’autorisation gracieuse des Trustees du British Museum)

CGC 70031 (d’après Petrie)

Pétosiris 56 (d’après Lefebvre)

Philosophy and Salvation in Greek Religion


Ed. by Adluri, Vishwa


Ever since Vlastos’ “Theology and Philosophy in Early Greek Thought,” scholars have known that a consideration of ancient philosophy without attention to its theological, cosmological and soteriological dimensions remains onesided. Yet, philosophers continue to discuss thinkers such as Parmenides and Plato without knowledge of their debt to the archaic religious traditions. Perhaps our own religious prejudices allow us to see only a “polis religion” in Greek religion, while our modern philosophical openness and emphasis on reason induce us to rehabilitate ancient philosophy by what we consider the highest standard of knowledge: proper argumentation. Yet, it is possible to see ancient philosophy as operating according to a different system of meaning, a different “logic.” Such a different sense of logic operates in myth and other narratives, where the argument is neither completely illogical nor rational in the positivist sense. The articles in this volume undertake a critical engagement with this unspoken legacy of Greek religion. The aim of the volume as a whole is to show how, beyond the formalities and fallacies of arguments, something more profound is at stake in ancient philosophy: the salvation of the philosopher-initiate.


(Text by the editor)




Vishwa Adluri – Philosophy, Salvation, and the Mortal Condition

Miguel Herrero de Juregui – Salvation for the Wanderer: Odysseus, the Gold Leaves, and Empedocles

Arbogast Schmitt – Self-Determination and Freedom: The Relationship of God and Man in Homer. Translated by Joydeep Bagchee

Walter Burkert – Parmenides’ Proem and Pythagoras’ Descent. Translated by Joydeep Bagchee

Alberto Bernabé – Ὁ Πλάτων παρωιδεῖ τὰ Ὀρφέως Plato’s Transposition of Orphic Netherworld Imagery

Barbara Sattler – The Eleusinian Mysteries in Pre-Platonic Thought: Metaphor, Practice and Imagery for Plato’s Symposium

Stephen Menn – Plato’s Soteriology ?

Vishwa Adluri & John Lenz – From Politics to Salvation through Philosophy: Herodotus’ Histories and Plato’s Republic

John Bussanich – Rebirth Eschatology in Plato and Plotinus

Luc Brisson – Memory and the Soul’s Destiny in Plotinus. Translated by Michael Chase

Svetla Slaveva-Griffin – Between the Two Realms: Plotinus’ Pure Soul

John Finamore – Iamblichus, Theurgy, and the Soul’s Ascent

About the Contributors


Index of terms

Il est désormais disponible en ligne le PhilBrasil.

Il s’agit d’un répertoire bibliographique des travaux en philosophie inspiré du PhilPapers. Son principal objectif est de répertorier la philosophie brésilienne ainsi que les travaux sur l’histoire de la philosophie produite par des philosophes brésiliens et des travaux traduits en langue portugaise. Il est possible de faire une recherche par auteur, mot-clé, titre de l’article ou de la revue.

Plusieurs travaux sont déjà répertoriés dans la rubrique « Historia da Filosofia », onglet « Filosofia Antiga » : antiga.


Gnostic Religion in Antiquity


Date Published: March 2013

Gnostic religion is the expression of a religious worldview which is dominated by the concept of Gnosis, an esoteric knowledge of God and the human being which grants salvation to those who possess it. Roelof van den Broek presents here a fresh approach to the gnostic current of Late Antiquity within its historical and religious context, based on sources in Greek, Latin and Coptic, including discussions of the individual works of preserved gnostic literature. Van den Broek explores the various gnostic interpretations of the Christian faith that were current in the second and third centuries, whilst showing that despite its influence on early Christianity, gnostic religion was not a typically Christian phenomenon. This book will be of interest to theologians, historians of religion, students and scholars of the history of Late Antiquity and early Christianity, as well as specialists in ancient gnostic and hermetic traditions.

(Editor’s text)

Mystical Monotheism: A Study in Ancient Platonic Theology


John Peter Kenney, 2010


In this engaging and provocative study, John Peter Kenney examines the emergence of monotheism within Greco-Roman philosophical theology by tracing the changing character of ancient realism from Plato through Plotinus. Besides acknowledging the philosophical and theological significance of such ancient thinkers as Plutarch, Numenius, Alcinous, and Atticus, he demonstrates the central importance of Plotinus in clarifying the relation of the intelligible world to divinity. Kenney focuses especially on Plotinus’s novel concept of deity, arguing that it constitutes a type of mystical monotheism based upon an ultimate and inclusive divine One beyond description or discursive knowledge.

Presenting difficult material with grace and clarity, Kenney takes a wide-ranging view of the development of ancient Platonic theology from a philosophical perspective and synthesizes familiar elements in a new way. His is a revisionist thesis with significant implications for the study of Greco-Roman, Jewish, and Christian thought in this period and for the history of Western religious thought in general.

(Text by the author)


Table of Contents




I The Foundations of Hellenic Monotheism

1 Degrees of Reality

2 Divine Ideas

3 The Emergence of Hellenic Monotheism

4 The Demiurgic Theology of Plutarch

5 Early Platonic Theism


II The Demotion of the Demiurge

1 Numenius and the Degrees of Divinity

2 The Didaskalikos of Alcinous

3 The Exemplarism of the Athenian School

4 Middle Platonic Theology


III The Mystical Monotheism of Plotinus

1 Divine Simplicity

2 Intellect and Ideas

3 Hid Divinity


Conclusion: Mystical Monotheism




Religion in the Ancient Greek City 


Louise Bruit Zaidman  (Author), Pauline Schmitt Pantel (Author), Paul Cartledge (Translator), 2000


This book is an English translation of the French work La Religion Grecque. Its purpose is to consider how religious beliefs and cultic rituals were given expression in ancient Greece. The chapters cover first ritual and then myth, rooting the account in the practices of the classical city while also taking seriously the world of the imagination. For this edition the bibliography has been substantially revised to meet the needs of a mainly student, English-speaking readership. The book is enriched throughout by illustrations, and by quotations from original sources.

(Text by the authors)



List of illustrations

Author’s preface to the English translation

Translator’s introduction

List of sources

PART I – Introduction: How should we study Greek civic religion?

1 – The necessity of cultural estrangement

2 – Some fundamental notions

3 – Sources of evidence

PART II – Cult-practices

4 – Rituals

5 – Religious personnel

6 – Places of cult

7 – Rites of passage

8 – Settings of religious life

9 – Religion and political life

10 – The festival system: the Athenian case

11 – The Panhellenic cults

PART III – Systems for representing the divine

12 – Myths and mythology

13 – A polytheistic religion

14 – Forms of imaginative projection

PART IV – Envoi

15 – Concluding reflections


I – The classical Greek temple

II – The monuments of the Athenian Akropolis



« Pagans and Christians in the Late Roman Empire : New Evidence, New Approches (4th-6th Centuries) »

Il aura lieu du 7 au 10 mars 2013 le colloque international  organisé par Marianne Sághy à l’University of Pécs.

Voici le programme :

Thursday March 7, 2013

CEU Budapest, Nádor utca 9, Popper Room

10:00-10:30 am  Marianne Sághy (Budapest) Welcome and Introductory Remarks: What’s new pagans and Christians? 

10:30-12:30 pm Cities, Sophists, Bishops
Chair:  Rita Lizzi Testa (Perugia)

Josef Rist (Bochum): Conversion in a late antique city: The Life of Bishop Porphyry of Gaza by Mark the Deacon
Raffaella Cribiore (New York): The sophist Libanius as a grey pagan
Wolf Liebeschuetz (Nottingham): A view from Cyrrhus: Theodoret’s ‘Affectionum graecarum curatio’
Samuel Provost (Nancy): Living side by side in a changing urban landscape: Christians, Pagans and Jews in Philippi (4th-6th centuries)

12:30-1:30 lunch break

1:30-3:00 pm  Religion and Philosophy
Chair: Marianne Sághy (Budapest)

Luciana Gabriela Soares Santoprete (Paris): Relations between philosophical and religious traditions at the beginning of the Christian era : two new digital research tools
Róbert Somos (Pécs): Sentences as elements of philosophia moralis: Adaptations of a pagan literary form in the Works of Rufinus of Aquileia
Maël Goarzin (Lausanne): Pagan and Christian biography in late antiquity: On the importance of practical life for pagan and Christian philosophers

3-3:30 Coffee break

3:30-5:00 pm Cohabitation and/or Conversion
Chair: Michele R. Salzman (Riverside)

Zsófia Buzádi-Sallai (Budapest): A pagan who converted and became bishop
Margarita Vallejo-Girvés (Alcalá): Empress Verina among the pagans
Miriam Adan Jones (Amsterdam): Conversion as convergence: Understanding Gregory the Great’s attitude toward pagan and Jewish influences in Anglo-Saxon Christianity

5:30-6:30 pm keynote lecture
CEU,  Budapest, Nádor utca 9, Auditorium

Chair: Wolf Liebeschuetz

Alan Cameron (New York): Were pagans afraid to speak their mind?

7:00 pm Buffet dinner

Friday March 8 CEU Budapest

10:00 -12:00 a.m Parallel sessions

Historical Perceptions
Popper Room

Chair: Hartwin Brandt (Bamberg)

Mar Marcos (Cantabria): Eusebius and Maximinus Daia
Anna Tóth (Budapest):  John Lydus as pagan and Christian
Juana Torres (Cantabria): Rhetoric and historical deformation: Marcus of Arethusa, heretic and martyr
Ecaterina Lung (Bucharest): Religious identity as seen by 6th-century historians and chroniclers

Pagan and Christian Burials
Gellner Room

Chair: Dino Milinovic (Zagreb)

Ivan Basic (Split): From Sepulcrum divi Diocletiani to Ecclesia gloriosae Virginis: New propositions on the Christianisation of Diocletian’s mausoleum in Spalato
Monica Hellström (Providence): Circiform funerary basilicas in Rome in the context of previous burial places
Olivér Gábor (Pécs): Pagan and Christian burial customs in Sopianae
Elizabeth O’Brien (Dublin): Impact beyond the Empire: Burial practices in Ireland (4th – 8th centuries)


Claudia-Maria Behling (Vienna): Pagan garden to Christian paradise: Early Christianity in the eastern Transdanubian Region
Stefanie Hofbauer (Vienna): Finger rings from Antiquity to Christianity

12:00-1:00 pm lunch break

1:00 pm-3:00 pm: Religious Profiling
Popper Room

Chair: Maijastina Kahlos (Helsinki)

Jerome Lagouanère (Paris): The figure of ‘Paganus’ in the Works of Augustine of Hippo
Linda Honey (Calgary): Religious profiling in the Miracles of St. Thekla
Monika Pesthy Simon (Budapest): Martyres versus Pharmakoi
Volker Menze (Budapest): The dark side of holiness: Fear, punishment, death and Barsaumo ‘the Roasted’

3:00 pm-3:30 pm Coffee break

3:30-5:30 Social and Economic Relations – Civic Life
Popper Room

Chair: Josef Rist (Bochum)

Joseph Grzywaczewski (Paris): Sidonius Apollinaris’s pagan vision of Roma bellatrix in Christian Rome
Lucy Grig (Edinburgh): Late antique popular culture and the creation of “paganism”: the Case of the Kalends of January
Sofie Remijsen (Leuven): Christianizing the rhythm of life? Sundays in late antique papyri
Jaclyn Maxwell (Ohio): Social relations and status anxiety across religious divides in late antiquity

5:30 pm-6:00 pm Coffee break

6:00-8:00 pm Pagans, Christians and Material Culture:  Artistic Crossovers
Popper Room

Chair: Lucy Grig (Edinburgh)

Rita Lizzi Testa (Perugia): The Economy of pagan temples and Christian churches
Edward M. Schoolman (Nevada): Religious images and contexts: “Christian” and “pagan” terracotta lamps
Dino Milinović (Zagreb): Pagan, Christian, or “secular”? The problem of the silver plate
Steven D. Smith (New York): Pagan literary mimésis in Christian Constantinople: The devotional epigrams of Agathias’ s Cycle

Saturday March 9, 2013

Pécs/Sopianae, Late Antique Cemetery
Cella Septichora Visitor Center (Pécs, Szent István tér) 

1:00-3:00 pm The Archaeology of Christianisation
Chair: Zsolt Visy (Pécs)

Mustafa Şahin (Bursa): Myndos Rabbit Island (Tavşan Adası): from pagan sanctuary to Christian monastery
Branka Migotti (Zagreb): The cult of Sol Invictus and early Christianity in Southern Pannonia
Hristo Preshlenov (Sofia): Pagans and Christianisation along the South-West Black Sea Coast in the provinces of Scythia, Moesia Secunda and Haemimontos
Roy Flechner (Dublin): Economic change and conversion to Christianity in early medieval Britain and Ireland: consequence or coincidence?

3:00-4:00 pm Coffee break and poster exhibition

Zsolt Visy (Pécs): Sopianae and Valeria in the late Roman period
Levente Nagy (Pécs): Christian objects from Pannonia
István Lovász (Pécs): The northern cemetery of Sopianae in 3D
Marijana Vuković (Budapest/Oslo): Saint Irenaeus of Sirmium
Ferenc Fazekas (Pécs) – Antal Szabó (Paks): “Pagan” and Christian culture in Lussonium
Réka Neményi (Pécs): Early Christian cross-bow brooches
Francesca Diosono (Perugia): Pagani and peasants: the rural site of Villa San Silvestro di Cascia
Alessandra Bravi – Silvia Margutti (Perugia): Transformation of sacred spaces:  Constantinople and the Eastern Empire
Roy Flechner (Dublin): Converting the Isles

4:00-5:00 pm Concluding remarks
Chair: Danielle Slootjes (Nijmegen)

Michele R. Salzman (Riverside)

5:00-6:30 pm The Late Antique Cemetery of Sopianae
with guides Zsolt Visy, Levente Nagy and Olivér Gábor

6:30-7:30 pm closing lecture
Chair: Alan Cameron (New York)

Hartwin Brandt (Bamberg): Constantine and Rome – between pagans and Christians

8:00 pm Dinner
Restaurant Pezsgőház, Pécs, Szent István tér

Conference coordinators:
Johanna Rákos-Zichy:
Andrea-Bianka Znorovszky:

Special thanks to Attila Üveges and the Zsolnay Örökségkezelő Nonprofit Kft. Pécs