History of Platonism

Plato redivivus 

Berchman, Robert M., Finamore, John F., University Press of the South, 2005


Following from the centuries of philosophical and religious thinkers who have studied and used Plato’s 4th Century B.C. doctrines, this anthology offers interpretations of Plato’s own works. The authors consider the intermediary role of Aristotle, the Neoplatonism of Plotinus, the religious and mystical theories of later Neoplatonic sources (including Egyptian writings), the effect of Platonic philosophy on Jewish writers during the Middle Ages, the adaptations of Cambridge Platonists, the Neoplatonic basis of Jung’s psychological writings, and the role of Plato’s doctrines in 20th Century Post-Modern philosophy.

(Text from the publisher)

Table of contents

Republic VI 509a9-c10 and its interpretation in antiquity : dialogical or dogmatic reading – Luc Brisson

Immortality vs. tripartition : the soul in Plato – Gwendolyn Gruber

The tripartite Soul in Plato’s Republic and Phaedrus – John F. Finamore

Erãos as institution : a consideration of why Plato wrote the Symposium – Matthew E. Kenney

Metaphors : thinking and being in Aristotle and Plotinus – Robert Berchman

Plotinus’ Philosophical Opposition to gnosticism and the implicit axiom of continuous hierarchy – Zeke Mazur

Plotinus : self and consciousness – Gary M. Gurtler

Alone to the Alone: The ascent to the One in Plotinus – Deepa Majumdar

The Sphere and the Altar of Sacrifice – Gregory Shaw

The Egyptian Book of the dead and Neoplatonic Philosophy – Algis Uzdavinys

Theories of nature in ancient platonism – John Phillips

A physics for the psyche? : Proclus’ Instituta physica and the « life » of the soul – Emilie Kutash

Damaskios’ new conception of metaphysics – Carolle Tresson & Alain Metry

« The Torah speaks in the language of humans » : on some uses of Plato’s theory of myth in medieval Jewish philosophy – Aaron Hughes

The manifest image : revealing the hidden in Halevi, Saadya and Ibn Gabirol – Sarah Pessin

Prophecy, imagination and the poet’s fine frenzy : reflections of a Cambridge platonist – Douglas Hedley

Listening to the voice of fire : theurgical fitness and esoteric sensitivity – Leonard George

Evolution, Jung, and theurgy : their role in modern neoplatonism – Bruce MacLennan

The problem of the self and its centre : postmodernism and neoplatonism – Kevin Corrigan.




Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World

Kevin Corrigan & Tuomas Rasimus (eds.) Leyde: Brill, 2013


This Festschrift honors the life and work of John D. Turner (Charles J. Mach University Professor of Classics and History at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln) on the occasion of his 75th birthday. Professor Turner’s work has been of profound importance for the study of the interaction between Greek philosophy and Gnosticism in late antiquity. This volume contains essays by international scholars on a broad range of topics that deal with Sethian, Valentinian and other early Christian thought, as well as with Platonism and Neoplatonism, and offer a variety of perspectives spanning intellectual history, Greek and Coptic philology, and the study of religions.

(Text from the publisher)

Table of contents

A Distinctive Intertextuality: Genesis and Platonizing Philosophy in The Secret Revelation of John – Karen L. King

The Three Forms of First Thought (NHC XIII,1), and the Secret Book of John (NHC II,1 and par.) – Paul-Hubert Poirier

Emissaries of Truth and Justice: The Seed of Seth as Agents of Divine Providence – Lance Jenott

Sethian Names in Magical Texts: Protophanes and Meirotheos – Einar Thomassen

“Third Ones and Fourth Ones”: Some Reflections on the Use of Indefinite Ordinals in Zostrianos – Wolf-Peter Funk

Le quatrième écrit du codex Tchacos: les livres d’Allogène et la tradition littéraire séthienne – Louis Painchaud

The Book of Allogenes (CT,4) and Sethian Gnosticism – Birger A. Pearson

The Temptation of Allogenes (Codex Tchacos, Tractate IV) – Madeleine Scopello

Martin Hengel and the Origins of Gnosticism – Volker Henning Drecoll

Arithmos and Kosmos: Arithmology as an Exegetical Tool in the De Opificio Mundi of Philo of Alexandria – Robert M. Berchman

Parole intérieure et parole proférée chez Philon d’Alexandrie et dans l’Évangile de la Vérité (NH I,3) – Anne Pasquier

Remarques sur la cohérence des Extraits de Théodote – Jean-Daniel Dubois

Evidence of “Valentinian” Ritual Practice? The Liturgical Fragments of Nag Hammadi Codex XI (NHC XI,2a–e) – Hugo Lundhaug

A Salvific Act of Transformation or a Symbol of Defilement? Baptism in Valentinian Liturgical Readings (NHC XI,2) and in the Testimony of Truth (NHC IX,3) – Antti Marjanen

“The Garment Poured its Entire Self over Me”: Christian Baptismal Traditions and the Origins of the Hymn of the Pearl – Dylan M. Burns

Alexander of Lycopolis, Manichaeism and Neoplatonism – Johannes van Oort

Crafting Gnosis: Gnostic Spirituality in the Ancient New Age – April D. DeConick

The Symposium and Republic in the Mystical Thought of Plotinus and the Sethian Gnostics – Kevin Corrigan

“Those Who Ascend to the Sanctuaries of the Temples”: The Gnostic Context of Plotinus’ First Treatise, 1.6 [1], On Beauty – Zeke Mazur

Johannine Background of the Being-Life-Mind Triad – Tuomas Rasimus

The Neopythagorean Backdrop to the Fall (σφαλμα/νευσισ) of the Soul in Gnosticism and its Echo in the Plotinian Treatises 33 and 34 – Jean-Marc Narbonne

Écho et les antitypes – Michel Tardieu

Plotinus and the Magical Rites Practiced by the Gnostics – Luc Brisson

Where Did Matter Appear From? A Syntactic Problem in a Plotinian anti-Gnostic Treatise – Lorenzo Ferroni

Plotinus, Epicurus, and the Gnostics: On Plotinian Classification of Philosophies – Andrei Cornea

Plotinus and the Vehicle of the Soul – John Dillon

Life and Happiness in the “Platonic Underworld” – Michael A. Williams

Trial by Fire: An Ontological Reading of Katharsis – Svetla Slaveva-Griffin

“Harmonizing” Aristotle’s Categories and Plato’s Parmenides before the Background of Natural Philosophy – Gerald Bechtle

Christians against Matter: A Bouquet for Bishop Berkeley – Mark Edwards

Proclus against the Gnostics? Some Remarks on a Subtle Allusion in the Timaeus-Commentary concerning Caves and Cages – Benjamin Gleede

Imagination and Psychic Body: Apparitions of the Divine and Geometric Imagination according to Proclus – Alain Lernould

Neoplatonizing Gnosticism and Gnosticizing Neoplatonism in the “American Baroque” – Jay Bregman


Apocalypse of the Alien God

Platonism and the Exile of Sethian Gnosticism

Dylan M. Burns, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014


In the second century, Platonist and Judeo-Christian thought were sufficiently friendly that a Greek philosopher could declare, « What is Plato but Moses speaking Greek? » Four hundred years later, a Christian emperor had ended the public teaching of subversive Platonic thought. When and how did this philosophical rupture occur? Dylan M. Burns argues that the fundamental break occurred in Rome, ca. 263, in the circle of the great mystic Plotinus, author of the Enneads. Groups of controversial Christian metaphysicians called Gnostics (« knowers ») frequented his seminars, disputed his views, and then disappeared from the history of philosophy—until the 1945 discovery, at Nag Hammadi, Egypt, of codices containing Gnostic literature, including versions of the books circulated by Plotinus’s Christian opponents. Blending state-of-the-art Greek metaphysics and ecstatic Jewish mysticism, these texts describe techniques for entering celestial realms, participating in the angelic liturgy, confronting the transcendent God, and even becoming a divine being oneself. They also describe the revelation of an alien God to his elect, a race of « foreigners » under the protection of the patriarch Seth, whose interventions will ultimately culminate in the end of the world. Apocalypse of the Alien God proposes a radical interpretation of these long-lost apocalypses, placing them firmly in the context of Judeo-Christian authorship rather than ascribing them to a pagan offshoot of Gnosticism. According to Burns, this Sethian literature emerged along the fault lines between Judaism and Christianity, drew on traditions known to scholars from the Dead Sea Scrolls and Enochic texts, and ultimately catalyzed the rivalry of Platonism with Christianity. Plunging the reader into the culture wars and classrooms of the high Empire, Apocalypse of the Alien God offers the most concrete social and historical description available of any group of Gnostic Christians as it explores the intersections of ancient Judaism, Christianity, Hellenism, myth, and philosophy.

(Text from the publisher)

Table of contents



CHAPTER 1 – Culture Wars

CHAPTER 2 – Plotinus Against His Gnostic Friends

CHAPTER 3 – Other Ways of Writing

CHAPTER 4 – The Descent

CHAPTER 5 – The Ascent

CHAPTER 6 – The Crown

CHAPTER 7 – Between Judaism, Christianity, and Neoplatonism








Histories of the Hidden God

Concealment and Revelation in Western Gnostic, Esoteric, and Mystical Traditions 

April D DeConick, Grant Adamson (Editors), London: Routledge, 2013


In Western religious traditions, God is conventionally conceived as a humanlike creator, lawgiver, and king, a being both accessible and actively present in history. Yet there is a concurrent and strong tradition of a God who actively hides. The two traditions have led to a tension between a God who is simultaneously accessible to humanity and yet inaccessible, a God who is both immanent and transcendent, present and absent. Western Gnostic, esoteric, and mystical thinking capitalizes on the hidden and hiding God. He becomes the hallmark of the mystics, Gnostics, sages, and artists who attempt to make accessible to humans the God who is secreted away. ‘Histories of the Hidden God’ explores this tradition from antiquity to today. The essays focus on three essential themes: the concealment of the hidden God; the human quest for the hidden God, and revelations of the hidden God.

(Text from the publisher)

Table of contents

Part I – Concealment of the Hidden God

1 – Who is hiding in the Gospel of John? Reconceptualizing Johannine theology and the roots of Gnosticism – April D. DeConick, Rice University

2 – Adoil outside the cosmos: God before and after Creation in the Enochic tradition – Andrei A. Orlov, Marquette University

3 – The old gods of Egypt in lost Hermetica and early Sethianism – Grant Adamson, Rice University

4 – Hidden God and hidden self: The emergence of apophatic anthropology in Christian mysticism – Bernard McGinn, University of Chicago

5 – God’s occulted body: On the hiddenness of Christ in Alan of Lille’s Anticlaudianus – Claire Fanger, Rice University

Part II – The Human Quest for the Hidden God

6 – Obscured by the scriptures, revealed by the prophets: God in the Pseudo-Clementine Homilies – Kelley Coblentz Bautch, St Edward’s University

7 – How hidden was God? Revelation and pedagogy in ancient and medieval Hermetic writings – David Porreca, Rice University

8 – From hidden to revealed in Sethian revelation, ritual, and protology – John D. Turner, University of Nebraska

9 – Shamanism and the hidden history of modern Kabbalah – Jonathan Garb, Hebrew University

10 – Dreaming of paradise: Seeing the hidden God in Islam – David Cook, Rice University

Part III – Revelations of the Hidden God

11 – Revealing and concealing God in ancient synagogue art – Shira Lander, Rice University

12 – The invisible Christian God in Christian art – Robin M. Jensen, Vanderbilt University

13 – On the Mothman, God, and other monsters: The demonology of John A. Keel – Jeffrey J. Kripal, Rice University

14 – Hidden away: Esotericism and Gnosticism in Elijah Muhammad’s Nation of Islam – Stephen C. Finley, Louisiana State University

15 – Conscious concealment: The repression and expression of African American Spiritualists – Margarita Simon Guillory, Rochester University

16 – Occulture in the academy? The case of Joseph P. Farrell – John Stroup, Rice University

Afterword: Mysticism, Gnosticism, and esotericism as entangled discourses – Kocku von Stuckrad, University of Groningen





Religious Conflict from Early Christianity to the Rise of Islam

Mayer, Wendy & Neil, Berlin: De Gruyter, Bronwen, 2013


Conflict has been an inescapable facet of religion from its very beginnings. This volume offers insight into the mechanisms at play in the centuries from the Jesus-movement’s first attempts to define itself over and against Judaism to the beginnings of Islam. Profiling research by scholars of the Centre for Early Christian Studies at Australian Catholic University, the essays document inter- and intra-religious conflict from a variety of angles. Topics relevant to the early centuries range from religious conflict between different parts of the Christian canon, types of conflict, the origins of conflict, strategies for winning, for conflict resolution, and the emergence of a language of conflict. For the fourth to seventh centuries case studies from Asia Minor, Syria, Constantinople, Gaul, Arabia and Egypt are presented. The volume closes with examinations of the Christian and Jewish response to Islam, and of Islam’s response to Christianity. Given the political and religious tensions in the world today, this volume is well positioned to find relevance and meaning in societies still grappling with the monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

(Text from the publisher)

Table of contents


Religious Conflict: Definitions, Problems and Theoretical Approaches

Setting the Record Straight at Galatia: Paul’s Narratio (Gal 1:13–2:14) as Response to the Galatian Conflict – Elmer, Ian J.

Early Christian Polemic against Jews and the Persecution of Christians in Rome by Nero – McLaren, James S.

The Use of Isaiah 28:11–12 in 1 Corinthians 14:21 – Theophilos, Michael P. / Smith, A.M.

Conflict in the Canon: The Pauline Literature and the Gospel of Matthew – Sim, David C.

Rewriting: The Path from Apocryphal to Heretical – Piovanelli, Pierluigi

Inter-City Conflict in the Story of St Michael of Chonai – Cadwallader, Alan H.

John Chrysostom and the Anomoeans: Shaping an Antiochene Perspective on Christology – Laird, Raymond J.

Media Manipulation as a Tool in Religious Conflict: Controlling the Narrative Surrounding the Deposition of John Chrysostom – Mayer, Wendy

Zosimus and the Gallic Churches – Dunn, Geoffrey D.

Religious Conflict between Antioch and Alexandria c. 565–630 CE – Allen, Pauline

Christian-Jewish Conflict in the Light of Heraclius’ Forced Conversions and the Beginning of Islam – Gador-Whyte, Sarah

The Earliest Greek Understandings of Islam: John of Damascus and Theophanes the Confessor – Neil, Bronwen

Muhammad the Eschatological Prophet – Casey, Damien

List of Contributors

Index of Names and Places

General Index



Ritual Texts for the Afterlife

Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets

Fritz Graf & Sarah Iles Johnston, London: Routledge, 2013


Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it.  These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century.  Recent finds and analysis of the texts have reshaped our understanding of their purpose and of the perceived afterlife. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.  After providing the Greek text and a translation of all the available tablets, the authors analyze their role in the mysteries of Dionysus, and present an outline of the myths concerning the origins of humanity and of the sacred texts that the Greeks ascribed to Orpheus.  Related ancient texts are also appended in English translations.  Providing the first book-length edition and discussion of these enigmatic texts in English, and their first English translation, this book is essential to the study of ancient Greek religion.

(Text from the publisher)



Literary, Philosophical, and Religious Studies in the Platonic Tradition

John F. Finamore and John Phillips, Baden-Baden: Academia Verlag, 2013


This anthology contains twelve papers on various aspects of Platonism, ranging from Plato’s Republic to the Neoplatonism of Plotinus, Iamblichus, Proclus and Hermias, to the use of Platonic philosophy by Cudworth and Schleiermacher. The papers cover topics in ethics, psychology, religion, poetics, art, epistemology, and metaphysics.

(Text from the publisher)

Table of contents

Ecstasy Between Divine and Human: Re-assessing Agency in Iamblichean Divination and Theurgy – Crystal Addey

Soul’s Desire and the Origin of Time in the Philosophy of Plotinus – José Baracat

Providence et liberté chez Jamblique de Chalcis – Jean-Michel Charrue

Sleep and Waking in Plotinus – Bernard Collette

The Spiritual Body. Porphyry’s Theory of the ochêma in Ralph Cudworth’s True Intellectual System of the Universe – Anna Corrias

Iamblichus’ Doctrine of the Soul Revisited – John Dillon

The Distorted City in the Republic – Gary Gurtler

Proclus on the Cognitive Value of Mythic Poetry. A Hegelian Reading – Oiva Kuisma

Neoplatonic Allegories in Hermias – Christina-Panagiota Manolea

The Splendor of Grace: Plotinus and the Cistercian Tradition – Martino Rossi Monti

The Reception of Schleiermacher’s View on Plato in 19th Century Poland – Tomaz Mroz

 The Nature of Art and the Art of Nature in Plotinus – Michael Wagner




Exégèse, révélation et formation

des dogmes dans l’Antiquité Tardive

Description et organisation

Il aura lieu en octobre prochain (les 25-26 octobre 2013), le colloque international « Exégèse, révélation et formation des dogmes dans l’Antiquité Tardive » sous la direction conjointe de Alain Le Boulluec (EPHE), Andrei Timotin (Centre Paul-Albert Février, UMR 7297, Aix-en-Provence), Philippe Hoffmann (EPHE) et moi-même (Institut d’Etudes Avancées de Nantes), avec le concours du LEM (UMR 8584-CNRS) et de l’EPHE au Bâtiment France de l’EPHE à Paris.

En partant des réflexions présentées dans deux articles devenus classiques de Pierre Hadot et dans les livres pionniers d’A.-D. Nock et d’A.-J. Festugière sur la relation entre philosophie et religion dans lʼévolution du sentiment religieux à lʼépoque impériale, ce colloque tâchera dʼapporter de nouvelles perspectives sur la transition progressive dans lʼAntiquité Tardive dʼune conception philosophique du monde à une croyance religieuse.

Cette problématique nʼa pas encore été suffisamment analysée, malgré son intérêt incontestable, déjà souligné par ces savants, pour l’histoire des religiosités philosophiques « marginales » de lʼAntiquité Tardive et des innovations que celles-ci ont apportées à lʼhistoire de la philosophie.

Pour ce faire, on abordera quelques thèmes précis tels que : la place des oracles et des révélations théologiques dans le discours philosophique ; le rapport entre le discours argumentatif et les pratiques religieuses dans la démarche philosophique/théologique (théologisation du rituel et ritualisation de la théologie) ; la démarche exégétique comme source des dogmes philosophiques/théologiques et comme moyen de production de textes nouveaux ; le rôle de la polémique dans la définition des croyances et dans la formation des dogmes philosophiques/théologiques.

Dates et Horaires : Vendredi 25 octobre 2013, de 16h à 19h et Samedi 26 octobre 2013, de de 9h à 19h.

Lieu : École pratique des hautes études, 190, avenue de France, 75013, Paris, Salle 123

Métro : Quai de la gare (ligne 6)

RER C : Station Bibliothèque François Mitterrand

Bus 89 : Arrêt Quai de la gare


Vendredi, le 25 octobre

 15 h 30 : Philippe Hoffmann (EPHE / LEM)

Introduction du colloque

De la polémique au dogme

Sous la présidence de M. Philippe Hoffmann

15 h 45 : Luciana Gabriela Soares Santoprete (IEA de Nantes)

L’étude des débats entre les écoles philosophiques platoniciennes et les courants philosophico-religieux platonisants de l’époque impériale à l’ère numérique.

16 h 10 : Sébastien Morlet (Univ. Paris-Sorbonne / IUF / UMR 8167)

Les attaques antichrétiennes de Porphyre ont-elles joué un rôle dans la constitution des doctrines chrétiennes ?

16 h 35 : Stéphane Ratti (Université de Franche-Comté)

Le diptyque des Nicomaque et des Symmaque au cœur de la polémique


17 h 00 : Discussion

17h 30 : Pause café

18 h 00 : Chiara Tommasi Moreschini (Univ. de Pise)

Arnobe, lecteur et critique de la philosophie païenne

18 h 25 : Giovanni Filoramo (Univ. de Turin)

La conception augustinienne de la visio dei: de la polémique au dogme

18 h 50 : Discussion

Samedi, le 26 octobre

De l’exégèse à la croyance

Sous la présidence d’Alain Le Boulluec

9 h 30 : Jordi Pià (Univ. de Paris III)

De l’exégèse à l’appropriation des dogmes dans le stoïcisme impérial : vers une conversion philosophique de nature religieuse?  

9 h 55 : Andrei Timotin (Acad. Roum./ CPAF, UMR 7297)

Le daimōn personnel dans la tradition platonicienne, de l’exégèse à la croyance

10 h 20 : Philippe Hoffmann (EPHE / LEM)

Autorités, exégèse et procédures rationnelles dans la construction dogmatique de Proclus

10 h 45 : Discussion

11 h 05 :  Pause café

11 h 20 : Lorenzo Perrone (Univ. de Bologne)

Exégèse et théologie de la déification chez Origène à la lumière des nouvelles Homélies sur les Psaumes

11 h 45 : Marie-Odile Boulnois (EPHE / LEM)

L’exégèse de la théophanie de Mambré dans la constitution de la doctrine trinitaire

12 h 10 : Laurent Lavaud (Univ. Paris I / SPHERE)

Exégèse et métaphysique dans le Contre Eunome de Grégoire de Nysse

12 h 35 : Discussion

Oracles et révélations théologiques

Sous la présidence de Giovanni Filoramo

15 h 30 : Aude Busine (Univ. de Bruxelles)

Usages divinatoires du livre et christianisation des pratiques oraculaires

15 h 55 : Menahem Luz (Univ. de Haïfa)

Oracles and Revelations as a Philosophical Mannierism

16 h 20 : Nicoletta Brocca (Univ. Ca’ Foscari, Venise)

Ecritures, théologie et philosophie dans la révélation sibylline

16 h 45 : Discussion

17 h 05 :  Pause café

17 h 20 : Luc Brisson (CNRS, Centre Jean Pépin)

La place et le rôle des Oracles chaldaïques chez Damascius

17 h 45 : Helmut Seng (Univ. de Francfort)

Exégèses des Oracles chaldaïques de Porphyre à Pléthon

18 h 10 : Discussion

18 h 30 : Alain Le Boulluec (EPHE / LEM)

Conclusions du colloque


Luciana Gabriela Soares Santoprete <luciana.soares@tiscali.it>

Andrei Timotin <timotin@ehess.fr>

(Texte des organisateurs)



Platonismus und hellenistische Philosophie

Krämer, Hans-Joachim, Berlin: De Gruyter, 1971







IV. EPIKURS LEHRE VOM MINIMUM. Exkurs: Die ‚Physik’ des Xenokrates und die fünf Argumente des Traktats De lineis insecabilibus







Classical Mediterranean Spirituality

Egyptian, Greek, Roman

A. Hilary Armstrong (ed.), New York: Crossroads Publishing, 1987

Table of Contents

I: Histories:

  1. J. Gwyn Griffiths’s « The Faith of the Pharaonic Period »;
  2. Griffiths’s « The Great Egyptian Cults of Oecumenical Spiritual Significance »;
  3. 3.A.H. Armstrong’s « The Ancient and Continuing Pieties of the Greek World »;
  4. J.B. Skemp’s « The Spirituality of Socrates and Plato »;
  5. Patrick Atherton’s « Aristotle »;
  6. A.A. Long’s « Epicureans and Stoics »;
  7. John Pinsent’s « Roman Spirituality »;
  8. H.D. Saffrey’s « The Piety and Prayers of Ordinary Men and Women in Late Antiquity »;
  9. J.M. Dillon’s « Plutarch and Second Century Platonism »;
  10. Neoplatonist Spirituality: Pierre Hadot’s « Plotinus and Porphyry » and Saffrey’s « From Iamblichus to Proclus, and Damascius »

II: Themes:

  1. John Peter Kenney’s « Monotheistic and Polytheistic Elements in Classical Mediterranean Spirituality »;
  2. Werner Beierwaltes’s « The Love of Beauty and the Love of God »;
  3. Atherton’s « The City in Ancient Religious Experiences »;
  4. Frederick M. Schroeder’s « The Self in Ancient Religious Experience »;
  5. K. Corrigan’s « Body and Soul in Ancient Religious Experience »;
  6. Peter Manchester’s « The Religious Experience of Time and Eternity »;
  7. Jean Pepin’s « Cosmic Piety »;
  8. I. Hadot’s « The Spiritual Guide »;
  9. R.T. Wallis’s « The Spiritual Importance of Not Knowing »;
  10. Patricia Cox Miller’s « In Praise of Nonsense »